Image from http://journey.eyemaze.net/2011_08_01_archive.html

Further Reading on Delray

Image: “Burnt Hydrant” (Accessed April 8, 2014)

Click here to see all narratives on Delray

Click here to see a timeline of events in Delray

“Zug Island” . 2009 November. http://detroit1701.org/Zug%20Island.html (accessed February 26, 2014).

This article provides a thorough overview of Zug Island’s history and development over the century. Zug Island’s initial state as a peninsula was turned into a manmade island due to industrial interests. The island was made to create an isolated industrial dumping ground next to industrial Delray. However, the need for industrial land turned Zug Island towards steel production. The island is off limits to the public and operates mysteriously. US Steel currently owns the steel mill on Zug Island, and its grotesque environmental practices have received harsh criticism from environmentalists and Delray residents alike. Delray residents are sandwiched by I-75 to the north and heavily polluted Zug Island to the south.

Binelli, Mark. Detroit City Is the Place to Be: the Afterlife of an American Metropolis. New York : Metropolitan Books, 2012.

This book takes an optimistic viewpoint on the future of the metropolitan area of Detroit, and the people and places that are bringing about change. Incorporates interesting personal narratives that could be of use to show trends in the metro and potential avenues for change in the research site. Also adequately captures the positive, optimistic future of a post-industrial rust belt city, which can help root research.

 Brampton. Section 34.1 Industrial four-M4. http://www.brampton.ca/EN/BUSINESS/PLANNING-DEVELOPMENT/ZONING/COB ZONING/TYPE/SECTION34.1_M4.PDF. (accessed March 7, 2014).

The purpose of this document to my research is that it states the rules for an Industrial M4-A zone with Delray is. It states that only places of industry may be built upon that land, and that no residential communities are permitted to be built there under that zoning law. This proves that Delray should not be a residential community because it is not classified as one.  This implies that residents should be bought out by companies to allow people to avoid the rampant health problems in Delray.

 Brieschke, Gary, et al. A Local Response to the Detroit River International Crossing: Recommendations to Guide a Community Benefits Agreement. Study, Urban and Regional Planning Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2007.

This comprehensive study produced by the Urban and Regional Planning Program at the University of Michigan provides background on the history of Delray and covers early demographical, industrial, and political conditions. The report goes on to analyze the effects of the plaza and bridge construction, including suggestions about what would help (or be less harmful to) the Delray neighborhood. It addresses the economic, environmental, and social impacts.  The purpose is to help draft a Community Benefits Agreement, which could be used as a legal contract between the developer and the community coalition.

While this report goes into much more depth on the bridge and the particulars of the building project than we may need for our project, it does provide in-depth context of the neighborhood, from immigration and development to background on physical environmental and environmental justice and problems.

Elizabeth Sarah Ann Kevin, Wasilevich Lyon-Callo Rafferty. “Epidemiology of Asthma in Michigan Chapter 12: Detroit – the Epicenter of the Asthma Burden.” Michigan Department of Community Health . http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/epi-mich-asthma-Detroit_Epicenter_of_Asthma_401493_7.pdf. (accessed March 5, 2014).

This document produced by the Michigan department of community help is the most important document I have yet to come across.  The health department has broken asthma rates not only in Delray but all over Detroit. Detroit experiences the greatest asthma burden in Michigan, especially among its children and this piece helps identify who is affected what age group is effected and where the most people are affected.

Farquhar , Stephanie Ann. Effects of the perceptions and observations of environmental stressors on health and well-being in residents of Eastside and Southwest Detroit, Michigan. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan , 2001.

In this dissertation by Dr. Farquhar she finds out via surveys that although the citizens of Delray believe that environmental blight and pollution is bad for their neighborhoods, they do not think that the incinerators and  water waste treatment plants are a problem. This shows that the are unaware of the tolls that industrial pollution has on their bodies. Also through sampling the population she discovered that over 25 percent of the population has been told by a health professional that they have asthma, and many other people have been told that they have hyper tension and cardio vascular disease. This proves that Delray is not a livable area and is definitely not a place to raise a young susceptible child.

Hyde, Charles K. “Detroit the Dynamic: The Industrial History of Detroit from Cigars to Cars.” America: History & Life, March 2001: 57-73.

In this article by Charles K. Hyde he describes the immense increase in industry from the late 19th century to the first decade of the 20th century in Detroit. In his account Detroit moves from producing things like “tobacco products, shoes, and vegetable seed” and other capital goods to the mass production of steel, iron, salt, and chemicals. This turn towards rapid industry growth Hyde contributes to the rise of the motor vehicle, Delray became a main target for industry as its location near the Erie canal eased transportation. The presence of factories had adverse effects on health, labor, and demographics throughout the city.

Hyde, Charles K. “Planning a Transportation System for Metropolitan Detroit in the Age of the Automobile: The Triumph of the Expressway.” Michigan Historical Review 32, no. 1 (2001): 59-95.

Detroit’s transportation system was created through a complex system of decisions and institutions which ultimately led to the construction of the expressway system. Hyde’s article focuses on the city’s debates around a rapid transit system and its decreased popularity due to the high cost. The war effort in the1940’s ultimately leads to the decision to construct a mass transit system with multiple expressways. Hyde proposes that the low cost and rise in minority urban areas where the freeways could be constructed made it the best decision. Densely populated urban areas throughout the city began to see the construction of expressways destroy their communities and by 1950 certain parts of city were beyond repair.

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York : Modern Library, 1969.

In this work, Jacobs critiques modernist urban planning policy, and the systematic destruction of viable urban fabric. She states that many of the policies in the day in which she was writing were responsible for the decline of countless neighborhoods in New York, but her causes and effects are applicable to many great American metros, especially Detroit. This source can help contextualize many of the planning initiatives that caused the isolation of Delray, and the destruction of the neighborhood.

Klug, Thomas. “Railway Cars, Bricks, and Salt: The Industrial History of Southwest Detroit Before Auto.” Old Delray. http://old-delray.com/ (accessed March 2, 2014).

This document covers in detail the industrial history of Southwest Detroit. It follows the track of how big industries moved into the region and how the landscape (physical, demographic, economic) changed as a result. It serves as a useful timeline of industrial growth between the mid-19th c. up until about 1905. From this, we get a clear illustration of how southwest Detroit transformed into a heavily industrialized area and how at first, this seemed to be beneficial for the community.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Salt: A Mineral Resource. DEQ, Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1994.

This document covers in detail the industrial history of Southwest Detroit. It follows the track of how big industries moved into the region and how the landscape (physical, demographic, economic) changed as a result. It serves as a useful timeline of industrial growth between the mid-19th c. up until about 1905. From this, we get a clear illustration of how southwest Detroit transformed into a heavily industrialized area and how at first, this seemed to be beneficial for the community.

State of Michigan . Department of Environmental Quality . https://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,4561,7-135-3313_3682_3713-298007–,00.html. (accessed March 7, 2014).

This source is the main page of The Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) This source told me how many people are serviced with their program how many gallons of “waste water” (sewage) is pumped through their hands everyday and that it is the largest discharger of treated waste water in Michigan. Serving the City of Detroit and 76 suburban communities. This shows that literally everyone’s waste is being dumped into Delray. Further proving that it is not a livable area.

Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1996.

In Thomas Sugrue’s study of Detroit, he examines the city and its urban development through the lens of racial and economic inequalities. The book offers a thorough background about why the racial landscape of Detroit is what it is today and who the actors were in shaping the city. For Delray, this is particularly important because, since it has been a lower-class neighborhood that attracts migrants.  The neighborhood has taken hits from policy makers because of the residents’ lack of financial power and thus has become a victim of environmental injustices. This book, while dealing with Detroit as a whole, lays the groundwork as to how these trends began.

The Detroit News. “How the Detroit River Shaped Lives and History.” Detroit News. February 10, 1997. http://blogs.detroitnews.com/history/1997/02/10/how-the-detroit-river-shaped-lives-and-history/ (accessed March 2, 2014).

This blog traces Detroit from its history as Iroquois Indian warpath to the booming early 20th century of Eastern European immigrants. Detroit’s attractive spot along the Detroit River has always been a popular stop for the British and the French conducting trades with the native people. The building of the Erie Canal connected Detroit with the major cities along the East Coast. A huge influx of immigrants from Europe fed the industries in Delray. In 1908, the Detroit News named the Detroit River the “Greatest Commercial Artery on Earth.” The Detroit River has been a notable place through major points of US history, including the Civil War. The Detroit River was a route along the “underground railroad” for African Americans escaping from slavery to Canada. During the Prohibition, “rum running” from Canada to the United States along the Detroit River became a new form of commerce. The location of the Detroit River illustrates the idea of an organic machine. For centuries, the river has been used as method of transportation, food source, and the reason Detroit became an industrial hub.

Thomas, June Manning. Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Discusses the decline of the city of Detroit, why urban planners failed to “save” more than a few targeted areas of the city, how the social environment of race relations connected with their actions. Talks about Detroit’s redevelopment strategy in the 1950s and 1960s, the evolution of planning at the municipal and neighborhood level during the period after the early 1970s.

Wilson, Bobby M. , and Seth Appiah-Opoku. “Zoning as a Form of Social Engineering.” Engineering Earth (Stanley Brunn ), 2011: 2053-2065.

This source describes the history and significance of zoning in the development of cities and the construct of communities. It takes a historical perspective on zoning use and specifically related to our research discusses how segregating industrial from residential is often central to zoning restrictions, though that was clearly not the case in early Delray. Industrial performance zoning, described here and seems to fit Delray, permits the location of specific industrial activities anywhere in the community.

Image by Detroit News Staff, 1977, “Ethnic Communities, Hungarian, Businesses, Delray, 1977” Photograph, 1977, 28230, Walter P. Reuther Library, https://reuther.wayne.edu/node/8789.

Detroit News Staff (Accessed April 23, https://reuther.wayne.edu/node/8789)

Image: “Ethnic Communities, Hungarian, Businesses, Delray, 1977” Photograph, 1977, 28230, Walter P. Reuther Library, https://reuther.wayne.edu/node/8789.

Click here to see all narratives on Delray

Click here to see a timeline of events in Delray

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>